Recommended focus stacking software & discussion group:
--- better images, less work
-- dedicated to the photography of small things
Rik's major photomacrography forum postings
(indexed through Feb 6, 2014)
Brief explanation of episcopic illumination, brightfield versus darkfield
Comments about the slanted-edge test
Illustration of 10X infinite objective used with tube lens focused far from infinity
Why background detail gets lost when seen through a narrow gap in foreground
On the effect of an isolation transformer in reducing power supply leakage
What process made this wall art?
20X, Nikon CF Plan EPI ELWD versus Mitutoyo M Plan Apo
Exploring a Cree LED light bulb power supply
Inner workings of a Cree LED light bulb
reply to "Question about microscope objective"
, regarding FF coverage and alternatives
on "Correcting for Refraction (or not!) in alcohol"
Oops! (cracks in the shell of a Cree LED light bulb)
(showing tarsal combs and tibial pollen basket)
BioQuip rotating microscope stage as specimen holder
What does a teleconverter do and why might you use one?
on spherical aberration (in "
Explaining Zerene Stacker alignment parameters
Crescent butterfly via cell phone
Change in FOV with focus
Illustration of why some tube lens combos vignette and others do not
Alternate source for Nikon objective CFI Plan Achromat 10X NA 0.25 WD 10.5mm (MRL00102)
Selectively sharpening out-of-focus areas of a subject
A clean computer is a happy computer
My new Mitutoyo 10X is very good!
(includes comparison to an older damaged unit)
Comments on use of crop in photomacrography.net postings
Comments about "Novel application of compound lenses for DOF"
, regarding lenses focused at infinity
Comments on "Reduced NA gives more detail"
(a puzzle piece, regarding color in sliced ham)
FAQ: What's a "tube lens", anyway?
Adapter stack for Raynox as tube lens
A quick summary of testing assorted tube lenses (Thorlabs, Nikon, Mitutoyo, Raynox),
How to process a time lapse sequence of focus stacks
Comments on StackShot above 10X
Goniometers -- accidentally buying a mated but unmatched pair
Taming CA in a high-mag shot of shiny meta
l (reply to a question)
MTF diffraction limit formulas
side effects of pre-rotation in Zerene Stacker
(reply to a question)
A new way of thinking and calculating about DOF
(using wave optics based on effective f-number)
On the difficulty of calculating DOF
(what all you need to know)
Advanced interpolators in Zerene Stacker
(reply to a question)
False color and detail/DOF from shiny metal
Reducing moiré effects in downsizing for web posting
Nikon's discussion of D800 vs D800E
electrical characteristics of StackShot shutter control interface
diffractive optics as used in new Nikon objectives
Longitudinal CA in 10X Mitutoyo and Nikon objectives
how to find principal planes of an arbitrary lens
White LED in operation
FAQ: What is a JML 21mm f/3.5 lens?
flocking in extension tubes
(discussion in another member's thread)
illustration of longitudinal CA in several microscope objectives
on the flickering of various light sources
Underwater cups -- a puzzle piece
(milk just starting to stick on a stainless steel pan)
Why do our eyes see differently than an optical lens?
(answer to a question about shooting through water)
Microscope headpiece dovetail dimensions
(discussion about a custom adapter)
Sun flashes from glacier-polished granite
Telecentric combo at 0.8X to 1.69X
(using Raynox DCR-250 in front of a Canon 100mm f2.8L)
Crab on rock
(for shooting butterfly scales, discussion regarding another person's question)
"Promote Control" for automatic focus stacking
Effectiveness of tilt/swing at camera versus lens
(discussion about another person's experiment)
Lava rock with filled voids
CFI BE 4X, remove black hood for more even coverage
Funnel web spider
"best" magnification for lens determination?
(discussion around another person's question)
Calculating aperture diameter?
(answer to another person's question)
Raynox DCR-250 and DCR-150 as tube lens
(comments on another person's experiment)
Changing tube lens/objective distance changes magnification
(discussion of an issue raised by another person)
by pwnell (a personal link, related to assistance given)
Green fly with suspicious holes
links to adapters for mounting RMS adapters
Some comments on size and working distance of objectives
Stainless steel etched by Lime Away
Edge streaks and alignment in a high mag stack
(analysis of another person's problem)
Live View delay through computer = 0.25 seconds
Doodlebug cardstock is blacker than Protostar
Green growth in forest litter
, common name "partridgefoot")
Stopping down at the end of a high mag stack
(discussion with link)
Flies on fungus on log
(shavings from lathe turning a lens adapter)
Airborne debris strata
(dust pile under a table saw)
MP-E 65 vs Raynox DCR-250
(several replies to another member's questions)
Shield bug mouthparts
JML 20X vs Nikon CFI E Plan Objective 100X
(replies to another member's questions)
Fern spore capsule and spore
(working with another member's stack)
Nabbing the speedy ground spider (Gnaphosidae)
Ground spider -- Gnaphosidae
M42 adapter for Olympus bellows
DOF of Micro 4/3 cameras and lenses
(replies to another member's questions)
Hoverfly eye with a coating of dust
(showing hairs not otherwise visible)
Viewing stereo pairs on a 3D monitor
Honeybees in the hive
On the tightness of bayonet mounts
(in a thread about Kenko tubes seeming loose)
Shield bug probing cherry bark
(answers to another member's questions)
Computer power for stacking
(comments in a general discussion)
Extreme laser speckle
MTF versus defocus wave error
On relay lenses behind a short fisheye
Ruminations about confusing stacks
(regarding surface "warping" that accompanies focus changes at high magnification)
Tiny brown mite attached to small black beetle
(comments in another member's thread)
Testing a Mitutoyo MT-1 tube lens by itself
Anthers and stigma of Erodium cicutarium: stereo
8 axis stage
(question in another member's thread)
Stacking step size
(especially the role of alignment)
Quick evaluation of the JML 20X objective
Recommendations on flash for stacking?
(with discussion of color balance variation from frame to frame)
Image quality when 50X NA 0.55 infinity objective is used as finite
Investigating the DOF of a 50X NA 0.55 objective
Rose aphids after a mild winter
What does StackShot "High Precision" mean?
Blowfly at 5X using Nikon CFI BE 10X
Blowfly proboscis, take #2
Detailed structure of a blowfly proboscis
Stepping through a DOF calculation (compared to dofmaster)
On choosing infinity objectives
(in response to a member's question)
Image comparison of bellows vs combo for 55mm f/1.8 at 2.45X
Shooting through water (effects of spherical aberration)
(and later posts in the same thread)
What causes halo?
Stacking the wily fishing fly
(on technical issues in stacking)
On collimating optics
(in "DIY fluorescent microscopy-slide scanner")
Mouth of the dragon's lair
(remants of an arc in a failed electric stove burner)
Pixels for use at 4-5X on an APS-sized sensor
(including analysis of f/11 vs diffraction)
Scored sandpaper for lens testing target
Lenses for use at 4-5X on an APS-sized sensor
Comparison of Nikon CFI60 10X NA 0.25 vs
Mitutoyo 10X NA 0.28
Axial illumination for the inside of a dark tube
Exploring a failed CFL bulb
effects in a fly's eye
Slicing open an (empty) can of whipped cream
Shooting through eyepiece with an MP-E 65
Comparing DSLR and P&S cameras
(in "The best camera for both macro of plants/lichens & scope")
On pupil ratio
Diamonds and nickel
Illustration of DSLR vs point-and-shoot setups and photos
(in reply to "The best camera...?")
What focus stacking s/w do you use?
(reply to new MP-E owner)
Determining Pupil Ratio?
(with illustration of unexpected behavior from a combo)
"SkyLight" cell phone to microscope adapter
(announcement of new product)
(showing the inner workings)
Shooting with a reversed 18-55 mm Canon kit lens
(how to get 1.5-5X magnification "the easy way")
Anthers and stigma of a Christmas Cactus flower
Study in brown and shiny
(silk thread with thawing frost)
Geranium petal veins in frontlight & backlight
Workflow for "slabbing" in Zerene Stacker
Image comparison of ZS and PS CS5 on deep high mag stacks
Resolving alignment & contrast issues with Zerene Stacker
(response to a new user)
Tales from the crypt
(hoverfly, caterpillar, crab spider)
AF motor focusing with a microscope objective
Waves in bronze
(wing of Western Conifer Seed Bug)
Calculating step size for the MP-E 65
(reply to question by Marcio21)
Pixels, droplets, and stone
Small brown moth with metallic yellow spots
Camera vs. The Human Eye
(multiple replies in this thread about mirrors)
Fuzzy seed pods, ID requested
Lichen stacked with cell phone
Broken bugs and the clean-up crew
"American Pelecinid" wasp
Yellow grasshopper on maroon car
Clock repair parts -- but what, exactly?
Is there a definition of "MACRO"?
(reply to a user's question)
Reflections of hard and soft light in a spider's eye
Small brown moth on Corian sink
Canon T1i: EFSC has large variation in shutter delay
Reflections of reality (in the eyes of a jumping spider)
Cell phone displays
A boatload of ? (surface texture on spiracle of cutworm)
Zerene Stacker and retouch color control
(several posts with detailed discussion, in this thread about retouching)
Fly on a Rock
An image comparison of Zerene Stacker and Helicon focus
Tiny mites on maple seed wing
"Cracking" in the eye of a tiger beetle
Smooth, non-shiny mounting surface for small stuff?
Magnification and infinity-correct objectives
(on change of magnification with added extention)
(how an array of naked LEDs messes up stacking)
Forcing a stack order in Zerene
(how to DMap a radiolarian)
Some design issues regarding Zerene Stacker
(in "Another Miner bee")
Zerene settings question
(replies regarding Options > Alignment settings)
Beginners help with Zerene. Examples posted.
(replies to new stacker)
Zerene Stacker - input appreciated with handheld stacking
Nikon and Mitutoyo objectives have different M26 threads
Lichen on wooden fence
FAQ: How can I hook a microscope objective to my camera?
Imaging at 5X: a tale of two objectives
I hate to think that somebody's tracking me, but really!
Tiny focus steps: how to make them, how to measure them
(stage movements via StackShot & Zerene Stacker)
40X with a StackShot rail
Easily transportable self-contained stacking setup
(introducing the Zerene Stacker / StackShot interface)
Proboscis of Noctua pronuba, very close up
Small black spider
(short field stack with MP-E 65)
Surface of dragonfly eye
On the anatomy of fly eyes
(in discussion about
"Some Interesting Things About Flies"
"sundog stereo pair"
(analysis of what's being shown)
On the topic of vibrations
(in discussion about
"New Horizontal Setup"
Wool of aphid
Deep stack of live fuzzy aphid
(shot as video using StackShot rail)
On the interaction between "metallic" insect cuticle and polarizing filters
Fine focusing a microscope using StackShot
Tiny wasp on desktop
Infinity objective on low-end zoom telephoto works fine
Short summary of options for bench stacking
Large wood boring beetle with very short wing covers
On the effect of adding a closeup lens
(with ray traces)
On the Frazier Lens
(technical discussion of the patent)
Small black caterpillar mimics bird dropping?
On the internal design of a 4X NA 0.47 microscope objective
(technical discussion of "infinity" optics)
Eye of fruit fly
(through 20X objective)
On the effects of sensor size
(especially image noise versus pixel noise)
(bold false colors on a fly bristle due to harsh lighting)
FAQ: What is "stack-and-stitch", and how can I do it?
Telephoto as tube lens for infinity objective
Evaluation of "JML" surplus lens
(versus Olympus 20 mm f/2)
Bellows on scope base
(a microscope setup)
new mfg Nikon 10X NA 0.25 finite objective looks very good
"Stacking mush" -- an example
Illustration of 40X NA 0.65 with and without cover glass
(through 40X objective, on microscope)
(responding to posting about UK "Large Blue" collection)
3D displays of fly anatomy
Photomicroscopy equipment selection
(answer to Zerene Stacker question)
Performance of Olympus bellows macro lens 20 mm at f/2.0 versus f/2.8
Discussion of foreground/background overlap when stacking
FAQ: What is pupil ratio and why would I care?
DOF versus lens length and sensor size
Resolution/aberration effects (if any) of shooting through a UV/Haze filter
Stopping down a lens combo
Glassy spot on the wing of a skipper
Diffraction effects and magnification
(discussion with LordV)
First macro with extension tubes
(helping a new user get past startup problems with stacking)
An update on some stacking software
(regarding 3 years' progress on "stacking mush")
Perspective and 2X flowers
MP-E 65 lens DOF, diffraction and sensor size
(discussion with LordV)
FAQ: What's the best way to focus when stacking?
Hand Held Stacking
(helping a new user get past startup problems)
Bellows and Rails
(helping a new user get past startup problems)
(comparing Nikon microscope objective with Luminar and Olympus bellows macro lenses)
Zerene vs Helicon
(answering the question posed by an experienced photographer new to stacking)
Stopping down a lens combo
(resolution, color aberrations, and inverted perspective)
Egg of little brown skipper
Problem getting Zerene Stacker 3-D Rocking to work
(helping a new user get past startup problems)
Thyme leaf oil glands
Nikon scope objectives
(regarding NA and resolution versus pixel requirements, and be sure to read the continuation page)
Matte black thermoplastic ("Plexiglas")
(discussion with Charlie Krebs about etching and 3D representations)
Getting 3.6x - 7.6x magnification
(discussion regarding behavior of a microscope objective -- principal planes and entrance pupil)
Tube length, magnification and working distance
(an easy way to determine the focal length of a lens)
Where the name "Rik" comes from
FAQ: Why aren't my images tack sharp?
Sharper subject, blurrier background
Upper Conrad Basin, end of August 2009
Stonecrop among the rocks
Monkey-flower, moss, and small fly
Synthetic stereo in Zerene Stacker
Some insects of the dry country
Chrysidid wasp warming up
Spectacular spider-killer-killing wasp
Shiny! The insides of a wasp mouth
Mandibles and tongue of a paper wasp, Polistes dominulus
Male mosquito antennae and palps
Honeysuckle buds and guests (aphids)
Anthers of red Azalea
Stingers of paper wasp and honeybee
Eye of fruit fly
Eye of fly, scale of what?
Flowers of chives
Portrait of a male mayfly
Bathroom spider, up very close
Mayfly (hand-held stack)
Stacking comparison for midge antennae
Plumose antennae of a midge
Just a gnat (midge)
References about MTF and resolution
Maple flower: anther with pollen
High style of a maple flower
Remains of a brown lacewing (isolated wing)
Shiny metal (tungsten filament of a halogen headlight)
Frost Spikes 5: view from the side
Fresh green moss, much closer view
Fresh green moss
Ice in a stream
Discussion: elf's macro to infinity spherical panorama head
Discussion: illumination pattern of a fiber optic illumination bulb
Discussion: optimal length of bellows
Discussion: relevance to macro of manufacturers' MTF charts
Discussion: how stacking algorithms work
Discussion: what really causes "diffraction blur" ?
Yellow rose with aphids
Cremaster of Monarch butterfly pupa
Even good moths can make bad choices
Stonefly exuvia on rocks in the Lochsa River
Caddisfly larvae in Idaho
Rouste ice, lousewort flowers, and heather in Conrad Basin
Conrad Basin at the end of August, 2008
"Horror of Greenvale" house centipede
Digger wasp collecting sweat
Pine Ridge area, Nebraska USA
Spider with ant lion
Aphid lion walking on a kitchen table
Spider on nettle
Still-life on a tree stump
Business end of a Western Cherry Fruit Fly
Western Tailed Blue butterfly
Fly on buckwheat flower
Crane fly face
Fruit fly portrait
Macro landscape stack using compact digital camera
Using layers to overcome transparent rendering by TuFuse
Pieris japonica flower
Revisiting the yucca moth: stacked macro vs SEM
Comparison of TuFuse focus stack with other methods
Johnny-Jump-Up, next generation coming up...
Shooting the "Carpet beetle again"
A single comparison of different stacking methods
Carpet beetle again
Johnny Jump-up, a *very* early spring viola
Icicles on a small bush
Sensor size: how does it matter?
Stereo Pairs: the effect of lighting shifts
Making scale bars with no calculations (OT-->diffraction)
Spider pedipalp (high res and in stereo)
Making scale bars with no calculations
Fritillary butterfly, larva head capsule, 1st instar
Looks like a theatrical mask...(head capsule of Speyeria butterfly larva)
Spiral cocoons -- need help with ID
I sacrificed a thumb for this LED?
Effect of polarizing filters on the cricket mandibles photo
The face behind the mask (cricket mandibles)
Noctua pronuba scales, broken by turbulence of a CO2 duster
An early Christmas present for Rik (marquetry Gift Box)
Small dark seeds in a spiral head
Wolf lichen (
Visualizing the effect of a microscope's condenser aperture
Small red rock, weathered gray roots, fuzzy green plants
Shooting "Face of a hobo, for sure!"
Face of a hobo, for sure!
Orb weaving spider, up close and personal
Shooting the "Orb weaving spider, up close and personal"
"Dry box" for photographing the hobo spider
Jumping spider on intense orange flower
Egg of a Fritillary butterfly
Eye of a Fritillary butterfly
Face of a hobo? (spider with prey)
Dramatic change in mantis eyes when dark-adapted
Depth illusion of the moving spot in mantis eyes
Moving black spots on the eyes of a mantis
The sharpest end of a paper wasp
Last ditch defense of a
Setup for shooting pectinate grooming spurs
Pectinate grooming spur of a paper wasp (
Big fly, small wasp
"Thicket Hairstreak" on yellow flower
Flexible teeth on grooming spur of Pogonomyrmex ant
Pectinate grooming apparatus on flying ant
Attack of the...flying ants?!
Flying ant --
Becker's White on "Diffuse Knapweed"
Spider with beetle prey
Grasshopper (one each, basic gray)
Cicada shell in sagebrush steppe country
Paper wasp guarding the nest
Chrysalis of Pontia beckerii (Becker's White)
Mandibles and tongue of yellow jacket wasp
Worm With Spider (Caution: not for the squeamish!)
Black grass seeds
Predatory fly with flying ant
Hopper on grass seed head
Salsify seeds and parachutes
Aphid predator: fly larva
Nylon and wood bellows parts
Red flower, green bug
Maple leaf, 100X, in color and B&W
Microsteris gracilis -- that tiny pink flower underfoot
White flowers with crab spider & prey
Propertius Duskywing skipper on dandelion
Souvenier photos from a hike this afternoon (crab spider, bumblebee, fly on flower)
On the resolution and sharpness of digital images
"You've got mail!" (spider on a computer monitor)
Exotic structure of the Lesser Periwinkle
Vinca minor pollen
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum)
Gee, do you suppose I should have mentioned the sharpening? (Reader's Digest cover episode)
Single pollen grain of Erodium cicutarium
Pollen of Erodium cicutarium
Anthers and stigma of Erodium cicutarium
Gee, do you suppose I should have mentioned the sharpening?
Small black spider on yellow flowering bush
Syrphid fly and cherry blossoms by the river
Purple star with fibers
'D' is for dime...or maybe for Denver (10X objective)
Shooting "a single maple flower"
A single maple flower
Reproductive end of a yucca moth
Heart of an aquatic snail
Stacking from slow-scan video (moth scales)
Which microscope objectives do not need compensating optics?
Telecentric optics, third round
Stack-and-stitch: ordinary optics vs telecentric
Several views of a copepod
Does anybody know this ciliate? (Chilodonella)
Slow motion hypotrich
Unexpected visitor from the wetlands (waterlouse)
On illumination techniques (in "Chondrules and inclusions in a 4.6 billion yr old meteorite")
Paramecium et.al. (including discussion of transverse & longitudinal chromatic aberration, and reflecting objectives)
On how to get started in stacking (in "Macro - Need help selecting eequipment)
On what kind of microscope to buy (in "Yet another newbie wants to buy a scope to take pictures...")
Brown spot on fiber of goldenrod seed parasail
Seams like Thanksgiving, don't they?
Marble butterfly -- that's the one with green, isn't it?
Stack & stitch experiment with telecentric optics
Autographa glitch: 'The Answer Is Blowing In the Wind'
Autographa, stacked and stitched
Big beetle, small beetle...
'macro' as 'more detail than unaided eyes'
Discussion about what "macro" means
"Sticky" hairs from a jumping spider's foot (high magnification)
Claws of a cutworm
Foot of a jumping spider
Inteference colors versus pigments in butterfly wings
Anagrapha moth wing, details of the "Y"
Lens test with four 50mm lenses (discussion with George Dingwall)
Tumbleweed like you've never seen it!
Earwig, formal portrait
My very first springtails!
Non invited bee (image by MacroLuv, comments by Rik about what matters for technical quality)
A closer look at Mum's 'lil ones...
Just Mum and the 'lil ones...
Pink buckwheat on Mt.Shasta, CA
Aperture and lens effects on stacking
Cellar spider = "Daddy-long-legs spider"
Spiny spider under porch roof
Stacking setup for spiny spider under porch roof
Face of a dragon?
Shining tarsus -- whose is it? (snout beetle foot)
Hair! It's just hair!
Peristaltic waves down abdomen of tiny male mayfly
Stacking setup for the mayfly eyes, August 2006
Two tiny mayflies on a writin' stick
Life is looking up for this tiny male mayfly!
Spruce budworms take over car dealership!
Madrone bark with spider and prey
Obelisking dragonfly at RVGS
Small lizard in Oregon forest
Spruce Budworm Caterpillars and Parasites
Flower and lichen
Wooly aphids! Get your genuine wooly aphids here!
Conrad Basin, Goat Rocks Wilderness, WA
(Favorite Location Forum)
Guardian of the campsite?
On the eve of the summer solstice... (locust bark)
Pretty mushroom --
Carpenter ants on a rotting tree
Just another flashy caterpillar...
Have you ever seen a snake fly?
The last click beetle trigger photos?
Click beetle trigger mechanism in operation
Half of a click beetle's trigger mechanism
Lady beetle putting its fancy colors on
Possibly the world's worst setscrew...
Check out the tail on this wasp!
Do *not* touch this caterpillar! (sheep moth)
Call me "cute", will you?! (jumping spider)
Bee Still (images by Ken Nelson -- comments by Rik about unsharp masking)
Minature metal glaciers?
Who woulda' thought a carpet beetle would look like this?
Tinier spring flowers
Blue butterfly: small but cooperative
Between the gills of a mushroom
Fungus on Scotch-Brite pad?
Some serious dry-land lichen
I'm going cross-eyed looking at these tiny spring flowers
Frost Spikes 4 -- The Clubs?!
Frost Spikes 3
Frost Spikes 2
Last rose of fall?
Parasitic wasp on end-of-the-year-aphids
A contrast of ... refinement? (moth on porch light)
Video setup used on shows such as Insectia
Effect of sensor size on DOF etc
Effect of lens aperture on DOF and resolution
Will you be dining above or below deck?
Syrphid fly departing
Blue butterfly taking off -- 4 frames in 1/15 second
Butterfly's sculpted egg -- a suitable wedding present?
Stacking the wily moth
Scales of a Sulpher (butterfly)
Visual system of jumping spiders
WC 8-4 Tumbleweed spikes
(discovered missing from forum, 2006-05-22)
WC 8-4 Another spider
(discovered missing from forum, 2006-05-22)
Flight machine (refs to dragonfly flight articles and FP flash technology)
NorWestLeps Yahoo Group
PanoTools Yahoo Group
What kind of a person joins PanoTools?
Microscope Yahoo Group
PanoTools at Gmane
Washington Trails Association
Stereo 3D Photo Gallery (including micro and macro)
Wim Van Egmund Stereo Gallery
Israel Fichman macro gallery at PBase.com
Macro/Micro Photography Equipment and Technique
Charlie Krebs' panel of test images with Canon MP-E 65 lens
A comparison of 8 macro lenses
"Ring" flash with stacked macro lenses
The Home Made Combined Macro Lens
(using toilet paper rolls)
Charles Krebs' photomicroscopy setup
Charles Krebs' low-power photomicroscopy setup (e.g. for flies)
Stereo Viewer Selection Chart
Russell Brown Tips & Techniques (Photoshop)
Edmund Optics Dolan-Jenner DC-950 DC-Regulated Fiber Optic Illuminator
Incident Darkfield Illumination Setup with LEDs
Cleaning Digital Camera Sensors
Zeiss: Microscopy From The Very Beginning
Gordon Cougar: links to links about microscopy
Alan Hadley's web site, micropics.org
The Clean Microscope
Homemade goniometer (3D positioner)
Tom Webster's macro flash bracket
Charles Krebs' Macro/Micro Images
The down of a thistle
Mosquito head from a very large stack
New 4X and a new fly. (Wild lookin' one too!)
Mosquito Larva (crossed polarizers, showing muscles)
Horsefly (using new field-stacking setup)
Leafhopper. Leafhopper eating. Leafhopper being eaten.
Aphids for breakfast, lunch and dinner...
The eggs hatched!
Damselfly lookin' right at ya! Unknown beetle.
Green Stink Bug
Happy looking nymph
Water flea (dorsal view)
The itsy bitsy spider(S)
Insects beware (fly head, and technique to photograph it)
Ladybug Head Shot
Syrphid Fly Head
Butterfly Wings (non-iridescent scales)
Butterfly Wings (iridescent scales)
Carpenter Ant Face
Scales of Two Butterfly Wings
Crane Fly Head
The face of death! (Mosquito Pupa)
Two Fly Heads
Bee's knees (sort of....) Part II (
Honeybee Pollen Combs)
Scales of Two (More) Butterfly Wings
Water Boatman Leg
Butterfly Scale Detail
Something for the Aphid Lovers
Two Individual Butterfly Wing Scales
Mosquito larva breathing tube
Yeah, they're a bit showy, but the reception is awesome! (Chironomid midge antennae)
This is the bee's knees! (really)
Mosquito Wing #1 (10X objective)
Mosquito Wing #2 (40X objective)
Urania ripheus (Sunset Moth), wing scale detail
Honeybee eye (87 images stacked)
Urania ripheus (Sunset Moth) revisited
Insects beware! (and how he did it)
Protozoa and suchlike
Rufous hummingbird feather (in DIC)
Paramecium bursaria (darkfield)
Bdelloid Rotifer Heads
Amoebas and Paramecium
Acineta (suctorian ciliate)
Floscularia ringens. Making "bricks" for tube
Mickey Mouse of the Rotifer World
Waterflea in Darkfield Illumination
Euglena spirogyra (darkfield)
Cyclops (24 image stack)
Euplotes, reproduction via fission
Coleps, final stages of binary fission
Coleps feeding frenzy
Suctorian on cyclops
What have we here? (tiny ciliate with
Downtown Minneapolis from a Helicopter
Extreme Fullscreen (e.g. ice climbing)
Welcome to Verdon (Erik Krause, Verdon Gorge)
Faf Acrobase (parachutist descending)
Danish Royal Wedding shot by Hans Nyberg
QTVR.DK - The Royal Wedding Panoramic Images
Orion Telescopes & Binoculars
(SteadyPix camera mount)
Other of Rik's Stuff
35mm Film vs DSLR: Gradation, Resolution, and Dynamic Range
Cleaning a Microscope Focus Mechanism: aus Jena Laboval 2
Canon Digital Rebel Color Resolution Tests (Red/Green/Blue, versus Bayer filter)
Lupines and Pine Trees (stitched panorama)
"Hanford's Crib Crawler"
, with link to
video of Z9 waste crib panoramas
Favorite TED Talks
Conrad Wolfram: Teaching kids real math with computers
Juan Enriquez: Decoding the future with genomics
Dan Gilbert: Why are we happy? Why aren't we happy?
("real" versus "synthetic" happiness)
Dan Dennett: Can we know our own minds?
(what is consciousness?)
Dan Dennett: Ants, terrorism, and the awesome power of memes
Al Seckel: Your brain is badly wired -- enjoy it!
(fascinating optical illusions)
William McDonough: The wisdom of designing Cradle to Cradle
("There is no finish line.")
3D and Extended DOF Imaging Companies & Stacking Software
--- better images with less work
TuFuse: Exposure and Focus Blending Software
FM Pharmaceutical Products
3D Digital Video Microscope with automated XYZ stage and servo controlled micro manipulators
Photron All-In_Focus Microscopy Camera
(piezoelectric motion of a microscope objective)
Keyence digital microscope
Software and Hardware for Extended Depth of Field Imaging
Image-Pro (Media Cybernetics)
BIG plugin for ImageJ
Enfuse: similar to TuFuse but open-source (and lower quality)
SAR Image Processor
(astronomical only, no focus stacking)
, rep'd by
and others, for example
Photographic Science and Technology
forum at dpreview
POV-Ray ray tracer
Stopping down a microscope objective to improve background appearance (discussion & links)
Magnetic sample holder (rotating stage)
Mark Berkery's "Macro Illustrated"
guide to how he does nature shots of insects
Butterflies and Things
, "leading supplier of dried butterflies and insects for collections, photography, crafters and more..."
"Color restoration of Fly Eyes"
by rehydration (soaking in water), Keith E. Short and Anthony W. Thomas, pages 10-15
"Math for macro photographers", formulas by Peter Forsell
(beware oversimplified formulas that ignore separation of principal planes).
Adobe Lightroom Tutorials by Julieanne Kost
"Magic Lantern" firmware upgrade for Canon DSLRs
IVPV handbook of optics
Online DOF calculator by Enrico Savazzi
"Microscope objectives in photography"
by John Hallmén at Flickr
"Structural Colors in Nature: The Role of Regularity and Irregularity in the Structure"
Motorized macro rail on the cheap -- PICAXE Forum
(building an automated macro rail from a defunct DVD player)
Borg brand M42 focusing helicoids and other adapters,
(for automated control of Canon cameras)
IEEE Spectrum: "
Using the Canon Hack Development Kit
How to photograph jewelry
Fundamentals of Vibration Isolation"
, CVI Melles Griot regarding optical tables
Microscope slide mounting media suitable for amateurs "
Alternative Mounting Media Revisited
", by Walter Dioni
List of close-up lenses
(by Chris Lilley, at NikonGear)
Nikon CF M Objectives brochure
(210mm tube length, no cover glass)
Nikon CF N Objectives brochure
(160mm tube length, 0.17mm cover glass)
Nikon Instruments Bio Objective Selector
Nikon Instruments Industrial Objective Selector
Photozone.de reviews of lenses for Canon cameras
Vivitar 283 flash mods
for low trigger voltage and switchable flash power
Buck's Macro Flash Bracket Project
(using a construction bracket and spring clamps)
DOF Calculator (Depth Of Field) by Tom Striewisch, Alexander Kluge, and Erik Krause
", a 40-page tutorial hosted at micro.magnet.fsu.edu
"Digital Imaging of Beetles (Coleoptera) and Other Three-Dimensional Insects
Mark Berkery on "Macro Illustrated"
-- a superb tutorial on macro shooting in Nature
Videos about lens manufacture
"Collecting and preserving Insects and Mites: Tools and Techniques"
"Scientific Imaging: Visual Data and Ethics"
"Depth of Field and Bokeh"
by H. H. Nasse -- a long and technical Zeiss publication
Table of camera flange-to-sensor distances
Peter Evennett - Abbe's Diffraction Experiments
Fred Miranda Forum topic on
setups for flash macro photos in the field
WinLens lens analysis software
Schneider Gauss Optics
lens analysis software
"Basic Macro Photography"
, a readable and wide-ranging overview, particularly for fieldcraft.
Scanning electron micrographs:
Computational Photography course
at max planck institut informatik. Various slide sets in
On the history of turkeys (through DNA analysis)
(good introduction, though nothing about focus stacking)
Earwig: Wing Unfolding
Graph of tolerance for tube length variation
in microscope objectives, as a function of numerical aperture.
Botanical Microtechnique: Staining Fresh Material
The Myth of DPI
Why image stabilization doesn't work at macro distances
"Microscope / Basics and Beyond"
On the ethics and emotions of killing small subjects
Head-to-head comparison of CS4 and ZS, focus stacking a pansy
eBay store for MicroscopeNet (inexpensive microscopes)
Yahoo Microscope posting with links to lists of scientific suppliers
DxOMark comparisons of camera image quality
CambridgeInColour.com Digital Photography Tutorials
Diffraction calculator at CambridgeInColour.com
advanced calculator (in "Part 2")
Versions of Luminar lenses
Sophisticated rig for photographing insects in flight, built with laser pointers and custom mechanical shutter.
(This link is to older versions in the Internet Archive WaybackMachine. Current version seems to be at
, :: laser_system :: link.) (4/27/2013, see
Norman Koren's downloadable lens test charts
Zotero tool to collect, manage, and cite research sources
Butterflies of America
Alan Hadley's posting about "Stacking Method Spectrum"
Helmut Dersch: LAN/WLAN Interface for Digital Cameras
Numerous BIG algorithms including extended depth of field
Lack of color management in almost all browsers
Gigapixel stitching on the Playstation 3
Digital micrography presentation (Powerpoint, as PDF)
"focusstack" tag at Flickr
(There are also tags for "heliconfocus", "combinez", "combinez5", "combinezm", and "automontage", though each with only a few images.)
Max Lyons' exposure and focus blending software
Imaging Resource "Comparometer" Digital Camera Image Comparison Page
Packing Instructions for Shipping a Microscope
Mike Reed's "Flame Warriors" (a caricature gallery of forum participants)
Why one pro prefers film to digital for VR panoramas (with links to other good articles)
Giotto software for background and dust subtraction (including pushbroom defect removal)
ETime Home Endoscope ("Digital Pen Camera")
Max Lyons' "Autumn Leaf Gigapixel #2", referencing photomacrography.net and Rik Littlefield's work in stack-and-stitch
Charlie Krebs' spreadsheet for calculating required resolution for photography through a microscope
RMS (Royal Microscopical Society) objective thread specification
"Equivalence" -- on the comparison of digital sensors of various sizes
Leitz: Image-Forming and Illuminating Systems of the Microscope
Flickr: The DOF Stacking Pool
Scene Completion Using Millions of Photographs
"Unshake" -- free code to do blind convolution
Tutorial on use of CombineZ, by Brian V. at Digital Grin
"PocketScope" 150X single-lens microscope (<2 micron resolution) -- pocketscope.com
"Light Field Photography with a Hand-held Plenoptic Camera" -- Stanford Tech Report STCS 2005-02
(refocusing and parallax after-the-shot)
Microscopes, Filters, Diaphragms, and Stops
"COI - Telecentric Lenses: What you need to know"
R.N.Clark on Digital Camera Sensor Performance Summary
R.N.Clark on Modulation Transfer Function and Image Detail (MTF)
Norman Koren's "Introduction to resolution and MTF Curves"
Norman Koren's "Resolution and MTF curves in film and lenses"
Moth Photographers Group at Mississippi State
DOFMaster depth-of-field calculator
Canon Digital Rebel (300D) manual
Olympus macro lenses technical info
Olympus document downloads
British company that makes photo adapters
GigaPxl project (film at 9x18" format, with full-custom lenses)
Max Lyons Digital Image Gallery
Modified Panorama Tools (improved optimizer)
John Houghton Panorama Photography
Big Ben's Panorama Tutorials
"Squaring the Circle in Panoramas" (research paper on multi-plane and multi-view projections)
panoguide.com - the guide to panoramas and panoramic photography
PTViewer documentation mirror
Max Lyons forums -- Extended Focus
VRMAG -- "the travel, photography and technology magazine devoted to the world of 360-degree virtual reality"
Botryococcus, golden algae
NASA's Visible Earth
Perpendicular Distance to a Line (Ask Dr.Math)
Perpendicular Distance of a Line
2.5mm stereo extension (Canon remote release extension)
Flash Photography with Canon EOS Cameras
Statistical Data Mining Tutorials (Andrew Moore)
Rik's introductory posting on Microscope Yahoo group
Microscope HF-CZ Thread
Thoughts on Extended Depth of Field With Don Williams' Microscopy Sequence
Luxeon Star LEDs (bright white)
Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer
Zeiss-Jena microscope manuals
Yahoo Microscope group, description of Microscopy Today online
Microsoft RAW Image Thumbnailer & Viewer
Removing the shadow (using Photoshop)
WTU Herbarium Image Collection (Burke Museum, plant identification)
Burke Museum, Arachnology (Rod Crawford)
Bernhard Vogl's version of manual HDR blending
Rik's posting of the Lep Soc News article on the Photomacrography forum
Rik's posting of the
egg on the Photomacrography forum
Blue Butterfly Taking Off
DVD reliability -- PanoTools forum thread (see especially Erik Krause's postings)
Digital/stepper/USB posting, Yahoo Microscope group
Microtomes (everything you ever wanted to know...)
GIMP resynthesizer for patching holes with believable textures
Children Learn By Monkey See, Monkey Do. Chimps don't.
Topcoder design reviewers
From posting at
Sphingidae of the Americas
North American Catocala
Two outstanding membership sites:
World's Largest Saturniidae Site
Energy consumption and carbon footprint
Carbon Pollution Calculator
(try 12000 miles/year auto, 30000 miles/year airline, and 30000 kwh/yr electricity)
Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States
Indexes to photomacrography.net:
Stacking related articles
out of date by this time)